2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels
CHAPTER 10: Two-dimensional Based Hybrid Materials for Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Into Hydrocarbon Fuels
Published:12 Aug 2022
Khursheed B. Ansari, Arghya Banerjee, Saeikh Zaffar Hassan, Mohd. Danish, Iram Arman, Parvez Khan, A. R. Shakeelur Rahman, Qazi Naved Ahmad, Quang Thang Trinh, 2022. "Two-dimensional Based Hybrid Materials for Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Into Hydrocarbon Fuels", 2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, Karthik Kannan, Aboubakr M Abdullah, Bijandra Kumar
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Energy is an essential commodity to humankind for mobility, lighting, cooking, communication, security and productive activities. In particular, fuel-based energy is of the greatest significance to human endurance in the modern age. Fuels are simply found within the Earth's crust, which inherently contains carbon and hydrogen. The carbon and hydrogen content of the fuel can be burned using air (or oxygen) to produce substantial amounts of energy per unit mass, useful for automobiles. Fossil fuel (i.e., crude oil and coal) delivers about 85% of the world's total energy requirement, followed by hydroelectric (6.8%), nuclear (4.4%), and other renewable resources (∼4%, wind, solar, hydro, wood, waste, and geothermal). Crude oil energy is mostly utilized in the transportation sector; wind and hydroelectric contribute to electricity generation; nuclear is promising energy for clean production of heat and electricity; solar energy can supply both heat and electricity in the most sustainable way; wood, waste, and geothermal provides thermal energy for the end-use. The combustion of fossil fuel delivers a significant amount of carbon dioxide directly into the atmosphere and contributes to the greenhouse effect.1 After fossil fuels, the continual evolution of industries across the globe also contributes heavily to CO2 emissions. The majority of CO2 emissions come from China, the European Union, and the United States. The United States remains the highest in per capita CO2 emission. China, the United States, the European Union, and India are amongst the highest populated countries in the world. Together India and China share 36% of the global population. Hence, their accelerating industrialization and urban growth results in the large quantity of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere because of fossil fuel combustion in the automobile sector, cement manufacturing, metallurgical industries, and gas flaring system, etc. To reduce CO2 emissions most of these countries are promoting the use of low-carbon energy sources. The governments of these countries are attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions produced through transport. Additionally, the Government-endorsed Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) promotes the production of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel, in order to reduce environmental damage.