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The rising level of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere drives researchers to look for promising techniques to convert CO2 into useful end products, such as fuel. The artificial conversion of CO2 using photocatalysts has gained significant attention in recent years. In particular, the photoreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels appears to be a dual approach to tackle energy and environmental issues. This chapter first discusses the photocatalytic applications of 2D hybrid materials followed by the principles of photocatalytic CO2 reduction. The preparations of several 2D materials such as graphene-based, graphitic carbon nitride-based (g-C3N4), transition metal-oxides (TMO), and transition metal-chalcogenide (TMC) photocatalysts are described. Graphene and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) remained exceptional 2D materials because of their electronic and physicochemical properties. Further, the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into fuel and chemicals using a photoelectrochemical approach and using several nanosized 2D hybrid materials (i.e., 0D/2D, 1D/2D, and 2D/2D nanomaterials) is discussed. Moreover, the insights of CO2 to fuel conversion processes are elaborated using the density functional theory (DFT) tool which opens new avenues for designing more efficient photocatalysts for CO2 conversion into hydrocarbon fuels.

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