2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels
CHAPTER 9: Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Into Energy-rich Chemicals by Two-dimensional Nanomaterials
Published:12 Aug 2022
Kayode Adesina Adegoke, Oyeladun Rhoda Adegoke, Morenike Oluwabunmi Adesina, Olugbenga Solomon Bello, Nobanathi Wendy Maxakato, 2022. "Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 Into Energy-rich Chemicals by Two-dimensional Nanomaterials", 2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, Karthik Kannan, Aboubakr M Abdullah, Bijandra Kumar
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Environmental pollution and the energy supply shortage are two significant challenges facing humanity, which have become complex phenomena.1–3 The economical and efficient way to transform solar energy to fuel/chemicals is to develop a photocatalytic system since solar fuels or chemicals are high-density energy carriers having long-term storage capability. However, the most critical challenging reaction in some photosystems is water oxidation and reduction, which splits water into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2).1–3 Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to solar fuels was discovered in 1972,4 and the formation of numerous solar fuels have been reported since then. This is considered to be one of the most efficient methods of overcoming the challenges of global warming and the energy crisis.3,5 Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are considered to be harmful and notorious pollutants and a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. They are known to cause climate change by trapping heat and they also contribute to respiratory diseases due to smog and air pollution. Extreme weather, food supply disruptions, and increased wildfires are other effects of climate change caused by greenhouse gases. It continues to increase yearly by approximately 2 ppm and has now passed 400 ppm.6,7 Fossil fuel combustion contributes about three-quarters of the increase in atmospheric CO2.8 Over the years, it was believed that photocatalytic CO2 conversion is a more complex process than the H2 production process due to the preferential formation of H2 and the lower selectivity for carbon products.9,10 Progress reported on CO2 photoreduction is still behind the progress made on water splitting due to the lower selectivity and efficiency and limited photocatalytic materials.11 Therefore, this necessitates the need to develop and employ an efficient photocatalyst that is not only able to address some of these problems but is also able to meet the industrial applications.