Chapter 9: Geriatric Pharmaceutics
Published:04 May 2022
N. Desai, L. E. McCoubrey, C. M. Madla, F. K. H. Gavins, and M. Orlu, in Specialised Pharmaceutical Formulation: The Science and Technology of Dosage Forms, ed. G. D. Tovey, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022, ch. 9, pp. 230-258.
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The older population represents a growing and heterogeneous subset of the population. Developing formulations for geriatric patients involves multiple challenges considering the prevalence of multi-morbidities requiring treatment with multiple therapies. Advancing age causes physiological changes, which can impact the drug pharmacokinetic performance of administered drugs. Dysphagia, malnutrition and impairments in cognition, dexterity, and vision contribute to lower medication adherence. Dose-flexible, easy-to-swallow formulations with accessible packaging are required that are acceptable to the patients. Researchers are designing patient-centric dosage forms such as orodispersibles, mini-tablets, and oral liquids to meet the needs of the ageing population. Furthermore, the digital revolution provides tools such as wearable devices and artificial intelligence to tailor delivery of drugs to our ageing population.