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The expansion of agriculture causes a constant increase in habitat fragmentation and degradation due to the increased use of pesticides and herbicides. Habitat loss and alteration associated with agricultural expansion play an important role in the decline of reptiles and, among them, lizards are particularly endangered. This chapter describes the toxic effects of pure glyphosate on the liver of the common field lizard Podarcis siculus. Glyphosate (GLY) is the most widely used active ingredient in agrochemical formulations worldwide to maximize crop yields. The onset of liver damage was evaluated after oral administration of GLY to simulate a realistic situation of herbicide exposure in the lizard habitat. The results demonstrate a severe liver condition, with fibrotic formations that become scarring with increased exposure. Hepatocytes enhance their defense mechanism by activating their antioxidant systems and increasing the expression of p53. The results also confirm the xenoestrogenic nature of GLY. Altogether, the effects of GLY must be considered biologically relevant and could endanger the viability and survival of lizard populations, also unbalancing the trophic cascade. A more controlled and less intensive use of the herbicide GLY in areas devoted to crop production would therefore be advisable.

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