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In recent years, electrospun hydrogel nanofibers have attracted considerable interest in the biomedical arena. In such nanomaterials, the exceptional properties including high surface-to-volume ratios, high porosity, improved mechanical performance and excellent tailorability in respect of their chemical composition and surface functionalization are combined with the 3D highly hydrated architectures of hydrogels. Consequently, researchers are focusing on the fabrication of electrospun multicomponent hydrogel nanofibers and their further evaluation in the biomedical field. In this chapter, an introductory section on electrospinning and its use in the production of biomaterials in the form of nanofibers is provided, followed by a description of the different fabrication pathways employed to generate electrospun multicomponent hydrogel nanofibers. Finally, the applicability of such nanomaterials in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound healing and biosensing is reviewed.

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