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Corrosion and fouling are two unresolved problems that affect all modern engineering structures. Protective coatings are an effective way to prolong the life span of relevant structures by extending their maintenance period. The recent restriction and banning of toxic but effective coating constituents (e.g. Cr, Co, Cu, tributyltin) have provided additional impetus for researchers to explore non-toxic and sustainable means of structural protection. As a result, different smart mechanisms of protective coatings have been introduced in recent decades, namely self-healing, superhydrophobic (SH), scale-phobic, self-lubricating, self-polishing and so on. Among these, SH coatings particularly are of great interest in mitigating water-induced corrosion and fouling due to their extremely water-repellent nature and ability to stay dry and clean. Resistance to penetrating water molecules can effectively reduce ion transportation from water-based corrosive media to steel while being unable to prevent the settlement and proliferation of unwanted organic and inorganic substances on the surface. This chapter is dedicated explicitly to outlining protective and degradation mechanisms with the efficiency of a diverse range of SH coatings employed for corrosion and fouling (dust, scale, ice and biofouling) protection.

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