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Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted growing interest thanks to their physically and chemically stable properties resulting from their intrinsic inert carbon units. They have been widely studied in recent years for optical sensing purposes owing to their non-toxic and biologically inert nature, which puts them in the category of environmentally friendly materials. Composite formation is a well-known technique to modulate the structural, chemical, and electronic features of GQDs, improving their application in various fields. Today, many different types of GQDs-based nanocomposites are synthesized and validated for the determination and analysis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter summarizes advances in preparing and applying GQDs-based nanocomposites as fluorescence sensors. After a general introduction, this review is divided into four parts. In the first part, various types of GQDs-based nanocomposites are classified and explained in detail. The second part reviews the different methods used for the synthesis of these nanocomposites and the third describes their structural and optical properties from the fluorescence sensing point of view. Finally, the fourth part covers studies on the application of various GQD-based nanocomposites as fluorescence sensors for the quantification of targeted analytes. The conclusion section gives the current challenges and perspectives of GQDs-based nanocomposites for (bio)sensing.

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