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Nanomaterials based on graphene have been widely used to create a variety of biosensors for biological diagnostics, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Interest in the creation of speedy, accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and low-cost biosensors, such as those used for in situ analyte monitoring, characterizing the binding affinity or biodistribution of particular compounds, or comprehending the in vivo kinetics of biomolecular interactions, is expanding. Due to the distinct molecular recognition and biocompatibility of aptamers, their combination with graphene to create nanocomposites has increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the manufactured biosensors. In this chapter, we describe current developments in the designing, production, and application of graphene nanocomposite-based aptasensors in various fields of sensing. The standard research on the fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, photoelectrochemical, surface Raman scattering, and field effect transistor sensing of DNA, proteins, enzymes, small molecules, ions, and others is highlighted and described. There are two major sections in the forthcoming chapter. In the first section, various types of surface functionalization strategies for 2D nanomaterial-based graphene aptasensors are reviewed. In the second section, different types of graphene-based aptasensors and their application in the sensing of DNA, hemin, dopamine, heavy metals, bacteria, pesticides, and Covid-19 are investigated in detail.

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