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Diabetes has become a global health concern because of an increase in diabetic individuals and the resultant millions of deaths that occur annually. Diabetic patients require constant glucose monitoring and maintenance to manage their health. Several nanomaterials have been employed in glucose monitoring sensors, including metal-based nanomaterials like gold, silver, platinum, and palladium or carbon-based nanomaterials like graphene and its derivatives and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, among several others. Graphene is an extremely versatile nanomaterial exhibiting a unique chemical structure with outstanding electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties that make it an ideal candidate for developing and designing biosensors for multiple applications. Moreover, graphene also possesses excellent electrochemical conductivity and a large surface area that allows for the developing of nanoscale biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and sensitivity. Several techniques and tools, including electrochemical, optical, amperometric, fluorescence and colorimetric, have been employed to detect blood glucose levels accurately. These techniques aim to ensure quick, inexpensive, and effective detection of blood insulin levels in diabetic patients. In this chapter, techniques using graphene-based nanocomposites for successful glucose monitoring and sensing are compiled.

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