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The creation of innovative, fast, highly selective and sensitive biosensors for pathogen detection is essential for medical diagnostics, food safety screening, and monitoring of environmental pollution. Graphene and its derivatives are currently the subject of intense interest and are utilized extensively in biosensors. Aside from their superior mechanical characteristics, thermal stability, and electrical conductivity, graphene and its derivatives can be functionalized with different bioactive elements, enabling them to be included in enhanced biosensors for microorganism detection. In this chapter, a variety of graphene-based biosensors as well as approaches to their design and biofunctionalization are discussed. In addition, the fundamentals of electrochemical and fluorescence detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria using graphene-based nanocomposites are illuminated. Finally, the current problems and challenges of some critical issues with graphene-based biosensors as well as future directions for developments in the field are also discussed.

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