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Single sheets of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb-shaped lattice nanostructure form a carbon allotrope known as graphene. There are a number of double bonds found in the graphitic carbon allotrope. Graphene is a substance that can be used to great effect in practically every aspect of human life at a very low cost. Researchers find the study of graphene a very fascinating research topic because of its excellent functionality. Graphene nanocomposites are used in a variety of areas, including super capacitors, sensor systems, solar cells, studies on corrosion prevention, and medical applications. The application of graphene in biomedicine could significantly help to increase the diagnostic sensitivity and selectivity characteristics of testing methods, particularly in clinical laboratory detection. Biosensors made of graphene are currently obtainable. The authors of this brief chapter provide an overview of graphene-based nanocomposite sensors for infectious disease. Numerous recent studies in the area of clinical medicine support the viability of adopting graphene-based nanocomposites for the detection of medical disorders. This chapter provides a concise summary and discussion of the specific uses of graphene-based nanocomposites in the detection of many infectious diseases, including those caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasites.

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