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The first uses of nanotechnology were incidental, like in the cases of the first human-made nanostructures dating back to 600 BC when coatings of carbon nanotubes were made in ancient pottery shards or the famous 4th-century Lycurgus cup. Now, we carefully design functional nanostructures. These designs are often bio-inspired or composed of bio-parts. We are aiming to create life-like systems. The conflict will remain in defining the stage when such systems could be considered living. A similar dilemma is persistent in the realm of viruses, which are considered living or not, depending on the perception. This chapter describes the mutual relation between nanotechnology and bacteriophages (phages for short). Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and use bacterial cellular machinery to replicate. Phages are often seen as bio-nanomaterials with high specificity, uniform structure, and easy replication. Over the years, phages and nanomaterials have been helpful to each other in enhancing their applications. In different approaches, nano-phage particles work in synergy to derive better results. This chapter is divided into two major sections: ‘bacteriophages for nanotechnology’ and ‘nanotechnology for bacteriophages’.

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