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The development of sustainable ways to generate energy through zero-carbon emissions has become one of the worldwide goals. Under this perspective, enabling the efficient and viable use of H2/O2 fuel cells is gaining ground as a feasible technology for sustainability. This chapter discusses the main aspects surrounding the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), starting with its electrochemical principles, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics in the first section of the chapter. The section covers the main progress in ORR catalysis using noble metal-based materials. The next section covers the use of carbon-based catalysts aiming at the factors that lead to their improvement in performance, along with some synthesis approaches. Under the same scope, the next section describes the various types of transition metal-based materials, such as oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, carbonitrides, chalcogenides, and phosphides, for ORR electrocatalysis. Finally, the last section provides some insights into the future of this area and the main targets that the scientific community should pursue to further develop this technology.

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