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The environment is a top priority in the 21st century. Much research has focused on renewable water desalination membranes and eco-friendly, sustainable materials from natural sources are being studied more due to their recyclability, biodegradability, compatibility, and benign behavior. Due to its availability, green credentials, and glucose residue chains, nanocellulose (NC) is a potential cellulose-based water-filtering material. NC is a promising sustainable nanomaterial due to its unique structure. Researchers are interested in NC-based green composites because they are lightweight, low cost, low density, of high specific modulus, stable in most solvents, non-toxic adsorbents, abundant, and have outstanding mechanical and physical properties. These materials also guarantee water purification. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis can reveal the thermal properties, chemical structure, and overall morphology of these materials, which are crucial for their future application. The properties of NC depend on the fiber, environment, production method, and surface modification. NC layer-by-layer coated membranes are particularly promising for their dual-cross-linked, self-healing, and antibacterial properties. Finally, this chapter will discuss the many uses of smart nanocellulosic materials and their challenges and potential.

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