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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical technique applicable to diverse environmental samples. In particular, the high reproducibility, the ability for non-targeted analysis and the non-destructive nature of NMR make it especially suited to the study of living organisms, which is known as in vivo NMR. This chapter explores the utility of in vivo NMR in environmental metabolomics. By studying metabolic changes within living organisms in response to various stressors/toxicants, unique perspectives and improved understanding of environmental toxicity and biochemical processes can be gained. Here, the benefits, challenges, instrumentation and current approaches used in vivo are discussed, with an emphasis on the information that can be obtained. Overall, despite the significant potential of in vivo NMR, it remains underutilized in the field of environmental chemistry.

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