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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact globally and research related to disease pathology and treatments has been initiated as a top priority and with the utmost possible speed. The availability of information and preliminary data related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus has reduced the time in clinical vaccine discovery. However, its clinical manifestations and disease pathology, which are extremely variable and range from mild to severe complications, are a major concern to the medical and research communities. This chapter aims to reveal the neurological involvement in COVID-19, such as neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2, its manifestations, and involvement in other neurological conditions. The post-COVID-19 effects on the incidence and prognosis of neurological diseases are also discussed. This chapter analyzes the latest literature published in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Ten neuroinvasive mechanisms are described, including the involvement of SARS-CoV-2 in stroke, epilepsy, Guillain–Barré syndrome and Parkinson’s disease. This review provides an essential framework for understanding the various neurological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection to diagnose, prevent, and control neurological disease severity and mortality.

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