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Global communities are focusing on renewable energy as a result of the depletion of fossil fuel supplies and rising environmental concerns about their production and consumption. The use of sustainable liquid feedstocks in place of non-renewable fossil fuels to produce biofuel (biodiesel) offers a viable alternative for the near future. Because it is made primarily from expensive high-quality virgin oil, the cost of producing conventional biodiesel is greater than that of diesel made from petroleum. The most sustainable way for the production of commercial biodiesel includes the use of a liquid base to catalyze the transesterification of the oil and fat found in triglycerides with short-chain alcohols. The catalytic potential of several types of catalysts, including homogeneous and heterogeneous acid/basic and mixed catalysts, in the transesterification process is compared. Owing to their simplicity of use, homogeneous catalysts, such as H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH, can be classified as either acid or basic catalysts for transesterification processes. Additionally, homogeneous catalysts offer a high output of biodiesel in a shorter time. A detailed overview of the most recent developments in homogeneous catalytic processes in biodiesel production is provided in this chapter.

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