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The application of fossil fuels has diminished recently owing to many drawbacks, such as increases in greenhouse gas production, enhanced environmental pollution, and depletion of fossil fuel sources, and biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol can be suitable alternatives. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel that has attracted much attention in recent years. It can be generated by the reaction of a light alcohol (e.g. methanol) and oil using a suitable catalyst. Catalysis is evolving into a strategic vocation of science since it represents a novel route to alleviate the drawbacks of energy and sustainability. These issues are becoming major concerns of the global vision of societal challenges and the global economy. Myriad catalysts have been applied for biodiesel generation so far, including homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, among which heterogeneous/nanocatalysts have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding stability, high reusability, and excellent biodiesel yields. Heterogeneous catalysts also present a range of selectivity, excellent catalytic activity, and water adaptability. In this chapter, various types of efficient heterogeneous/nanocatalysts utilized in biodiesel production, mechanisms, synthesis techniques, comparisons with homogeneous catalysts, and advantages and disadvantages are considered.

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