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The founding of chemical societies in Europe took place in three “waves”. First, between about 1750 and the 1820s, local chemical societies were founded, such as dinner clubs, student clubs, local societies focusing on lecturing and collective experimentation, and reading circles.1

During a second wave, between about 1840 and 1870, national science-oriented chemical societies were founded. Examples are the chemical societies of London, Paris, Berlin and St. Petersburg. While those of Paris and St. Petersburg, initially, had a purely scientific orientation, the societies of London and Berlin also tried to be a platform on which science and industry could meet.

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