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Most promising applications of glycodendrimers are directed to their use (1) in the inhibition or variation of the biological activity of proteins, viruses, microbes or bacteria, (2) in the enhancement of the signal transduction on cell surfaces or (3) in drug delivery. This chapter highlights another kind of biomedical application of glycodendrimers: the recent progress with polypropylenimine (PPI) glycodendrimers in their successful in vitro and in vivo administration as anti-Alzheimer and anti-prion agents as polymeric therapeutics and for diagnostics in the field of brain diseases. For understanding the molecular and biological interactions of PPI glycodendrimers with Alzheimer and prion peptides and proteins, general aspects of the structure–property relationships of various PPI glycodendrimers in terms of molecular interactions against low and high molecular weight molecules, liposomes and cells are also described. In this context, the molecular and biological interactions of glycodendrimers are explainable by H-bonds addressable for dense-shell glycodendrimers or a combination of H-bonds and ionic interactions addressable for open-shell glycodendrimers. Further details of the molecular interactions of glycodendrimers in brain diseases are presented, identified and discussed.

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