Chapter 17: Ocean Resources for the Production of Renewable Chemicals and Materials
Published:16 Dec 2014
This chapter describes the use of ocean- or marine-sourced biomass for the production of renewable materials and chemicals. Algae and waste from the fisheries can be used to provide a range of chemicals including biopolymers (carbohydrates), pigments, proteins (and amino acids), lipids and minerals. This chapter highlights the use of algae to produce phycocolloids (carrageenans, agarose and alginates), waste crustacean shells to produce chitin, chitosan and related small molecules, and waste mollusc shells to produce biorenewable calcium carbonate. In many cases, green chemistry and engineering approaches are employed. Examples include the use of catalysts (both chemical and bio-catalysts) and the use of alternative solvents (water, supercritical fluids and ionic liquids). Furthermore, consideration of the overall sustainability of current fishing and aquaculture practices is encouraged and the use of by-products for adding commercial viability to this sector of the economy is outlined.