CHAPTER 20: Photoactivated Structural Changes in Photoreceptor Membrane Proteins as Revealed by in situ Photoirradiation Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy
Published:24 Feb 2014
A. Naito and I. Kawamura, in Advances in Biological Solid-State NMR: Proteins and Membrane-Active Peptides, ed. F. Separovic and A. Naito, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, pp. 387-404.
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A novel in situ photoirradiation system for solid-state NMR measurements was developed and revealed photoactivated structural changes in photoreceptor membrane proteins. Using this method, we successfully identified the M-intermediates of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR or sensory rhodopsin II) and the complex with the transducer (ppR/pHtrII) embedded in a model membrane. 13C NMR signals from [20-13C]retinal-ppR and ppR/pHtrII revealed that multiple M-intermediates (M1, M2 and M3) with a 13-cis,15-anti retinal configuration coexist under continuous photoirradiation. One of the M-intermediates (M3) was not an M-intermediate but probably an N-intermediate, as the M3-intermediate was not activated by 365 nm LED light. The photocycle in [20-13C]retinal-SrSRI (sensory rhodopsin I) was examined using in situ photoirradiation solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The 13C NMR signal of the M intermediate was trapped at –40 °C by illumination with 520 (green) or 595 nm (orange) LED light, and the configuration of retinal was revealed to be 13-cis,15-anti. The M-intermediate was transformed into a P-intermediate by a second illumination with 365 nm (blue) light in a double-photon process. The P-intermediate was revealed to be the 13-cis,15-anti configuration of retinal. Further, the G-state could be transformed into the P-intermediate by illumination with 365 nm light through single- and/or double-photon processes.