Functional Metallosupramolecular Materials
CHAPTER 7: Metal-Organic Frameworks as Chemical Sensors
Published:13 Jul 2015
N. W. Waggoner, A. M. Bohnsack, and S. M. Humphrey, in Functional Metallosupramolecular Materials, ed. J. G. Hardy and F. H. Schacher, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pp. 192-245.
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Chemical sensing is of critical importance in today's society in a variety of applications from medicine to environmental pollution control, and from food safety monitoring to the detection of illicit substances and chemical weapons. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown tremendous promise as a new class of chemical sensor materials that could be integrated into future devices. MOFs are microporous crystalline materials with infinite, periodic structures composed of organic ‘linkers’ connected to metal ‘nodes’. Their architectures can be fine-tuned by synthetic design for task-specific purposes: as chemical sensors, MOFs can be designed to interact with specific target analytes. Interest in MOFs as chemical sensors has grown significantly over the last decade, particularly given the increasing number of examples of luminescent lanthanide-based MOFs, and MOFs that display mechanochemical responses to external stimuli. In this chapter, we discuss some of the fundamental properties required to prepare MOFs for chemical sensing. We then present an extensive review of recent research in this area, showing how MOFs have been applied in a wide range of applications, including sensing of anions, cations, small organic molecules, biomolecules, as well as changes in physical conditions such as temperature and pH.