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Cells are structured materials with specific organization targeted to accomplish the task of sustaining life. The outer layer of cells is a plasma membrane or a cell wall, both of which act as barriers leading to a controlled environment inside the cell. This barrier composed of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins is organic in composition. The natural environment of the cells dictates that ions and protons are the primary charged species that are the part of cellular processes. The evolution of ion and proton pumps and channels is a clear indication of their crucial role in sustaining life. Electrons, on the...

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