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The cell surface is very complex and regulates diverse physical and chemical processes. Engineering the cell features by modifying cell surfaces is a powerful tool for manipulating cell properties and controlling interactions between cells and the environment. In this way, a protective environment can be created to prolong cell lifetime and functions; and biological hybrids based on synergistic properties of living cells and nanomaterials can be developed. To be modified, cells are exposed to various types of nanomaterials including natural and synthetic polymers, nanoparticles, and small reactive molecules. Modification conditions may require exposure of modified cells to chemical and physical...

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