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This chapter gives an overview of recent achievements concerning thermometry in micro and nanofluidics. As temperature variations can play a key role in confined volumes, inferring temperature from the physical or chemical properties of a reacting medium is a critical issue especially at a reduced scale. Heat can be intentionally generated to induce strong thermal gradients and fast temperature cycling. On the other hand, unexpected localized temperature variations are likely to impact the overall properties of the sample under study. Non-contact methods, both semi-invasive and non-invasive ones, are usually preferred to determine local temperatures. Here, different approaches are described to facilitate the choice of an appropriate one for a given application on the basis of parameters such as the sensitivity, the spatial and temporal resolution and the temperature range.

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