Thermometry at the Nanoscale: Techniques and Selected Applications
Chapter 11: Nanotube Thermometry
Published:02 Oct 2015
Koji Takahashi, 2015. "Nanotube Thermometry", Thermometry at the Nanoscale: Techniques and Selected Applications, Luís Dias Carlos, Fernando Palacio
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are composed of seamless cylinders of honeycomb graphite lattice and are known to have unique properties.1 Since they were first reported in 1991,2 a wide variety of researchers have devoted themselves to understanding and applying CNTs. One of the most promising applications for CNTs is scanning probe microscopy (SPM) because their thin diameter and high aspect ratio are ideal for exploring steep features with high spatial resolution. In addition, their stiffness and flexibility due to their defect-free structure of carbon atoms linked by strong sp2 bonding are advantageous for tip lifetime, by preventing tip wear and crashing in comparison with normal Si probes. Additionally, their well-characterized structure allows us to accurately reconstruct the surface morphology. Probe microscopy using a CNT as a tip was first reported in 1996:3 a single CNT of diameter 5 nm extended from CNT bundles that had been attached to the Si pyramid tip of an AFM cantilever with acrylic adhesive. Stiffness in the axial direction and flexibility in the lateral were confirmed, and a trench of width 0.4 μm and depth 0.8 μm was successfully traced, which is a difficult target for conventional Si tips. Currently, CNT AFM probes are commercially available.