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Live cells are challenging subjects for thermometry at an extremely small scale. In addition to the high spatial resolution, a high temperature resolution is also required for cellular thermometry because the temperature changes during cellular functions are estimated to be less than 1 °C. The continuous efforts of researchers have produced a number of valuable methods for evaluating cellular temperature. In this chapter, we present the current view of cellular thermometry and discuss its importance in scientific fields, especially biological and medical ones.

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