Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
CHAPTER 13: Evaluating the Usefulness of Spring Water: Production of Trihalomethanes from Chlorination
Published:29 Sep 2015
Yumi MANAKA, Masayuki GOTO, Chie SATO, 2015. "Evaluating the Usefulness of Spring Water: Production of Trihalomethanes from Chlorination", Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water, K Clive Thompson, Simon Gillespie, Emma Goslan
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Spring water has long been utilized by the residents of Japan. Currently, spring water receives much attention because it contains naturally occurring minerals and many people travel from afar to partake of its perceived benefits. Many sources of suitable quality and quantity are designated by the Ministry of Environment as providing high-quality water. The names and locations of these spring water sources can easily be obtained on-line. Although there are concerns related to the effects from microorganisms since there is no sterilization, the use of spring waters as sources of drinking water has gained more attention due to the naturally derived, high-quality minerals contained in them. In this study, we investigated whether chlorination of spring waters from five different sources would result in formation of trihalomethanes, a disinfection by-product of public health concern. These spring waters were also analysed for water temperature, pH levels, turbidity, chromaticity, and TOC. The objective was to consider the possibility of utilizing spring water as a safe and useful water resource. We found that four spring waters with water collection facilities satisfied the water quality standards for drinking water for pH, turbidity, and chromaticity levels. These spring waters were also found to have low concentrations of organic contaminants. Due to the low quantity of organic substances, very low concentrations of trihalomethane were produced as a by-product of chlorination. On the basis of these results, we believe that in the future, the chlorination of spring water can potentially be used to secure safe, high-quality, and palatable drinking water.