CHAPTER 19: The Removal Effect of Volatile Halocarbon Compounds in Drinking Water Using Household Water Purifier
Published:29 Sep 2015
M. Goto, R. Takanashi, T. Kaneko, Y. Manaka, K. Kishida, and H. Nakajima, in Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water, ed. K. C. Thompson, S. Gillespie, and E. Goslan, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pp. 161-164.
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We examined the effectiveness of filtration using water purifying cartridges to remove volatile halocarbon compounds (VHCs) in drinking water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of commercial filters in comparison with the effect of boiling in removing VHCs. The standard pure waters were adulterated with eight VHCs of concentration such as CHCl3 0.1–100 µg/L, CHCl2Br 0.025–25 µg/L, CHClBr2 0.04–40 µg/L, CHBr3 0.2–200 µg/L, C2HCl3 0.15–150 µg/L, C2Cl4 0.04–40 µg/L, C2H3Cl3 0.04–40 µg/L and CCl4 0.01–10 µg/L. In almost all boiled samples except CHBr3, the concentration levels of VHCs were decreased to undetectable levels. However, in the highest level of CHBr3, the level of 200 μg/L was reduced to 1 instead of undetectable level after 10-minutes boiling. The total 200L of each adulterated sample was filtered using a commercial cartridge filter and the VHCs levels analyzed. The highest concentration of CHCl3 was decreased to 43% of the original level. However, in the series of CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, CHBr3, C2HCl3, C2Cl4, and C2H3Cl3, only 0.5% of these VHCs were detected after filtering, and an undetectable amount of CCl4 was also revealed. We also evaluated the VHCs contamination level such as CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, CHBr3 and CCl4 in samples of drinkable tap water, which were measured as 6.6, 5.7, 2.5, 1.0 and 0.4 µg/L, respectively. By filtering 1,800 L of contaminated water, the removal capability of VHCs fell. The levels of CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, CHBr3 and CCl4 remained at 95, 67, 60, 20 and 0% of the original amount, respectively.