Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
CHAPTER 21: Application of Chlorine-Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane in Swimming Pool Water Treatment to Minimize the Disinfection By-Products
Published:29 Sep 2015
D. Peng, F. Saravia, G. Abbt-Braun, and H. Horn, in Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water, ed. K. C. Thompson, S. Gillespie, and E. Goslan, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pp. 176-179.
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Swimming pool water is treated and recirculated over large periods of time to ensure adequate water quality, during which disinfection is a necessary step. Chlorine, the most common disinfectant in swimming pools, reacts with the organic matter in swimming pool water to produce undesirable and potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). The work presented here addresses the application potential of nanofiltration for swimming pool water treatment, which minimizes the formation of DBPs and their precursors at relatively low operating pressure. Intensive sampling of pool water showed a time delay between the increase of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and formation of AOX (organically bound halogens adsorbable on activated carbon), which indicates the possibility of minimizing DBP formation by quickly removing the organic matter from the pool water. But the number of visitors did not correlate with the DOC development. On-site experiments in a public swimming pool with three commercial NF membranes (chlorine-resistance≥1 ppm) in flat-sheet modules showed stable rejection performance during approx. 6 weeks operation. Two of them indicated high removal rates of DOC and AOX (>80%) but no removal of trihalomethanes. The results achieved with the pilot scale NF module allowed calculation of the possible minimization of DBPs and precursor-formation, if a branch current is treated with NF-membranes.