Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
CHAPTER 36: Reaction Kinetics of Chlorine with Human Body Fluids Present in Swimming Pool Water
Published:29 Sep 2015
P. Hua, X. Chen, E. Vasyukova, and W. Uhl, in Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water, ed. K. C. Thompson, S. Gillespie, and E. Goslan, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pp. 322-330.
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In this work, the specific chlorine demand and specific trichloromethane formation potential (TCM FP) for organic precursors, such as individual body fluid analogue (BFA) components, humic acid (HA) as well as precursors mixtures, were determined experimentally. The chlorine consumption and TCM formation as a function of time were also investigated for all DBP precursors. It was found that urea exhibited the highest specific chlorine demand followed by histidine and uric acid. Furthermore, urea may belong to the fast reacting precursor towards chlorine consumption. The specific chlorine demand of the BFA was much higher than that of humic acid, indicating that BFA were more reactive towards chlorine than humic acid. However, the specific TCM FP of humic acid was about 2 times higher than that of the BFA, which suggests humic acid to be more reactive towards TCM formation than BFA. Citric acid and HA were the main precursors for TCM formation. However, the results suggested that HA had a higher reactivity than citric acid towards TCM formation.