Oxidative Stress and Redox Signalling in Parkinson’s Disease
CHAPTER 13: Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson’s Disease
Published:21 Jul 2017
Searching for biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases is an active field of research. Regarding Parkinson’s disease, a good sensitivity biomarker is urgently needed because neuroprotective agents could be of benefit for patients if given early during the premotor phase. Oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxidative species and antioxidant mechanisms, is considered an important pathogenic mechanism in Parkinson’s disease. New biomarkers could be found analyzing molecules that are specifically altered by oxidative insults, and biomarkers should be better searched in peripheral fluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid because, in contrast to neural tissue, they are easily accessible fluids. Molecular changes are caused by oxidative reactions induced by reactive species, including peroxidation, halogenation, glycation, carbonylation, methionine oxidation, nitration and S-nitros(yl)ation. Several biomarkers related to the action of these reactive species have been proposed or are under investigation. Among these potential biomarkers, α-synuclein and its oxidative modifications represent a promising field of research. A combination of biomarkers (‘multiple biomarker’) has been proposed to better account for the pathogenic heterogeneity of Parkinson’s disease. The discovery of these new biomarkers would improve the knowledge and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.