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Understanding the wetting of solids by liquids is essential in many biological, medical and industrial processes. Examples range from artificial tissue engineering to practical applications like biofouling, non-fogging coatings, fog harvesting or self-cleaning textiles. Surfaces with high liquid repellency, often inspired by nature, have promising applications.

The wetting behaviour of an ideal, flat and chemically homogeneous surface can be described by the Young equation. This equation can be derived by balancing the interfacial forces at a three-phase contact line:1 

Here γL, γS and γSL are the liquid–gas, solid–gas and solid–liquid interfacial tensions. In...

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