CHAPTER 17: 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenases of Cephalosporin Synthesis
Published:23 Apr 2015
Central steps in the biosynthetic pathways of some of the most commonly used antibiotics, the cephalosporins, are catalysed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases. Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) catalyses the 2OG-dependent oxidative expansion of the five-membered thiazolidine ring of the penicillin nucleus into the six-membered dihydrothiazine ring of the cephalosporin nucleus. DAOCS uses dioxygen to create a reactive iron–oxygen intermediate from ferrous ion to drive the reaction. In prokaryotic cephalosporin producers, the cephalosporin product, DAOC, is hydroxylated at the 3′-position to form deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) as catalysed by a second 2OG-dependent enzyme, DAC synthase (DACS). In eukaryotic cephalosporin producers, the reaction is catalysed by a bifunctional enzyme, DAOC/DACS, that catalyses both the ring expansion and the 3′-hydroxylation reactions. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes are closely related to DAOCS by sequence, suggesting these enzymes may have evolved by gene duplication. Cephamycin C-producing microorganisms use two enzymes, encoded by the genes cmcI/J, to convert cephalosporins to their 7α-methoxy derivatives that are less vulnerable to β-lactam hydrolysing enzymes. The methoxylation reaction is dependent on Fe(ii), 2OG and S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting the involvement of another 2OG-dependent oxygenase. Herein, structural and mechanistic features are summarized for these 2OG enzymes that utilize this common and flexible mode of dioxygen activation.