CHAPTER 13: Dioxygenases of Carnitine Biosynthesis: 6-N-Trimethyllysine and γ-Butyrobetaine Hydroxylases
Published:23 Apr 2015
This chapter describes the state of knowledge of the two 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases of carnitine biosynthesis: 6-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Both enzymes have been extensively investigated as carnitine plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism in animals and some other life forms. Carnitine metabolism is introduced followed by a comprehensive review of the properties of the two carnitine biosynthesis dioxygenases including their purification, kinetic and biophysical characterization, regulation and roles in metabolism.