Green and Sustainable Medicinal Chemistry: Methods, Tools and Strategies for the 21st Century Pharmaceutical Industry
Chapter 16: Base Metals in Catalysis: From Zero to Hero
Published:08 Mar 2016
J. Maes, E. A. Mitchell, and B. U. W. Maes, in Green and Sustainable Medicinal Chemistry: Methods, Tools and Strategies for the 21st Century Pharmaceutical Industry, ed. L. Summerton, H. F. Sneddon, L. C. Jones, and J. H. Clark, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016, ch. 16, pp. 192-202.
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Noble metals in combination with ligands are commonly used as catalysts in the pharmaceutical industry. However, these metals possess a limited abundance, so it is merely a matter of time before these natural resources are depleted. This creates a serious and daunting challenge for the future of pharmaceutical and fine chemicals manufacturing. It is thought that two major strategies will play a role meeting this challenge for future generations. Firstly, better metal separation and recovery strategies are being developed. A second approach is to avoid the use noble metals entirely and to explore their replacement by base metals, which are more abundant and readily available. Throughout this chapter, we will discuss the need for base metal catalysis and demonstrate some recent advances in the application of base metal catalysis to the development of sustainable direct amination.