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This book was written as part of the education and training aspects of the CHEM21 (Chemical Manufacturing Methods for the 21st Century Pharmaceutical Industries) project ( CHEM21 has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement n°1115360, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) and EFPIA companies’ in kind contribution (


The editors would like to thank all the contributing authors; both those within the CHEM21 consortium and the external academics with complementary expertise to the CHEM21 members.

The views expressed in regards to education and training materials represent the aspiration of the CHEM21 consortium, although may not always be the view of each individual organisation.

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