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The wide variety of food products that can be produced by high-pressure processing (HPP) illustrates the versatility of this technology. During the past 30 years, it has evolved from the status of an emerging processing method to an industrially reliable technology. The unique effects of pressure on food constituents along with consumers’ acceptance of the process explain the tremendous potential of this technology to produce microbiologically safe, nutrient-rich, preservative-free products. The advantages of the process more than compensate for its processing cost of ∼€0.064–0.163 kg−1 or ∼US$0.032–0.081 lb−1. This chapter gives an overview of the effect of the technology on food safety and shelf life. In particular, the effect of HPP on microorganisms, food quality, nutritional quality, and food toxicology, and the types of pressurized products commercially available, are discussed. The international use of this technology and the challenges it still faces are presented.

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