CHAPTER 9: Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging
Published:01 Apr 2022
I. V. Martynenko, F. Purcell-Milton, and Y. K. Gun'ko, in Supramolecular Chemistry in Biomedical Imaging, ed. S. Faulkner, T. Gunnlaugsson, and G. O Maille, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022, pp. 278-321.
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In this chapter we present the main concepts and recent advances in the application of semiconductor quantum dots (QD) as agents in bioimaging. We analyze the biologically relevant properties of QDs focusing on the following topics: QD surface treatment and stability, labeling of cellular structures and receptors with QDs, incorporation of QDs in living cells, cytotoxicity of QDs and the influence of the biological environment on the biological and optical properties of QDs. Initially, we consider utilization of QDs as agents in high-resolution bioimaging techniques that can provide information at the molecular level. The diverse range of modern live-cell QD-based imaging techniques with resolution far beyond the diffraction limit of light has been examined. For each technique, we discuss the pros and cons of QD use and deliberate how QDs can be further engineered to facilitate their applications in the respective imaging techniques and to produce significant improvements in resolution. Finally, this chapter provides an analysis of the future prospects for the application of QDs in bioimaging and related areas of biology.