Biophysics and Biochemistry of Cartilage by NMR and MRI
CHAPTER 8: Sodium and Other Exotic Methods in NMR and MRI of Cartilage
Published:09 Nov 2016
Special Collection: 2016 ebook collectionSeries: New Developments in NMR
R. Reddy and A. Borthakur, in Biophysics and Biochemistry of Cartilage by NMR and MRI, ed. Y. Xia and K. Momot, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016, pp. 225-245.
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This chapter describes the most promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarkers for quantitative imaging of molecular changes in cartilage during early osteoarthritis. The overview discusses the current status of emerging technologies, such as sodium, T1ρ, and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI that target proteoglycans of the tissue, their role in disease management and developing disease-modifying therapies, as well as their limitations. Also presented is an outline of potential future technical developments including extensions of these methods to ultra-high field 7 T MRI scanners.