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Vaccination is one of the most successful strategies to prevent human disease and continues to prevent millions of deaths worldwide each year. The success of this approach has resulted in the eradication or a drastic reduction of cases of devastating diseases such as smallpox and poliomyelitis, suggesting that for diseases that infect humans with no animal reservoirs at least, it must be the strategy of choice for disease management. Traditionally, vaccines have been prepared from live-attenuated or inactivated pathogens. However, for certain pathogens, the use of whole organisms or their protein components might result in safety issues and in the...

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