Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles: Past, Present and Future
Gaseous and Particle Greenhouse Emissions from Road Transport
Published:13 Jun 2017
M. Lapuerta, J. Rodríguez-Fernández, and J. M. Herreros, in Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles: Past, Present and Future, ed. R. M. Harrison and R. E. Hester, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017, pp. 25-45.
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This chapter discusses the sources and impacts of greenhouse and particle emissions from road transport, as well as future pathways to mitigate their environmental impacts. The main greenhouse gas species considered in greenhouse inventories by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, are first independently and then conjointly (equivalent carbon dioxide emissions) presented in the different sections of this chapter. Tailpipe greenhouse emissions produced by the propulsion and/or after-treatment systems (direct tank-to-wheel) and those emitted during the life cycle of fuels and vehicles (indirect well-to-tank) are both accounted for. Particle emissions are also addressed from a broad environmental standpoint. Improvements in vehicle fuel economy, behavioural changes in society in order to avoid unnecessary journeys and a higher market penetration rate of low-carbon vehicle technologies and energy carriers are the pathways required to achieve an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the weather-related disasters associated with them.