CHAPTER 5: XPS Characterization of Metal-free Functionalized Carbons
Published:24 May 2018
W. Luo and S. Zafeiratos, in Metal-free Functionalized Carbons in Catalysis: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, ed. A. Villa and N. Dimitratos, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018, pp. 138-176.
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X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful experimental technique widely used for the analysis of solid surfaces and nanomaterials. It can provide the elemental composition and oxidation state of the surface and near surface regions of the sample at quite high precision. As such, it is one of the best tools to study the concentration and chemical bonding of dopants on carbon materials. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize some of the most representative XPS characterization works on metal-free functionalized carbon materials. It starts with a brief introduction to the physical principles, practical aspects and data analysis of the XPS method. Consequently, XPS characterization of various forms of pristine carbon materials is discussed, and the essential elements for analyzing carbon materials with this technique are provided. Finally, an overview on the recent applications of XPS on functionalized carbons doped with heteroatoms is presented.