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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in processed food have been a topic of concern for the past 60 years. Several advancements have been made towards understanding their toxicity, formation, occurrence and detection, risk assessment and legislative guidelines. Still, the research field is facing several challenges starting from general challenges such as lack of data on oral toxicity and direct effect on the human body, using toxic equivalency factors from coal tar mixtures for food etc., to specific challenges such as diversity in processing of food products, matrix-interferences, PAH solubility and clean-up requirements. Furthermore, use of non-environmentally friendly solvents and non-/semi-automatized processes, ambiguity in reported PAHs and consumption data, and different risk assessment approaches are problematic. Besides these challenges, this chapter discusses the lack of detailed mechanisms for PAH formation in processed food, analysis of PAH derivatives and process by-products, lack of diagnostic ratios for source-apportionment and food regulations. Standardization of food products and processes, designing cooking tools, model development, initial food sample screening, rapid contaminant detection, identification of hidden influential factors and establishing an international platform for discussion of the research needs are some recommendations. A focus on these will further enhance our cognizance and insight about these toxic compounds in processed food products.

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