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Process contaminants are substances that form in food or in food ingredients when they undergo chemical changes during processing. Processing methods that might generate chemical contaminants include fermentation, smoking, drying, refining and high-temperature cooking. Processing of foods may be required to make them microbiologically safe, as well as edible and digestible, or to generate new tastes to enhance consumer acceptance. However, food processing either at home or in manufacturing can have undesired consequences. Besides the loss of some nutrients such as vitamins, potentially harmful by-products can develop and so regulations have been introduced to help protect the consumer. This chapter will provide an overview of the current European Union regulations that are designed to reduce consumer exposure to process contaminants in food.

Process contaminants are substances that form in food or in food ingredients when they undergo chemical changes during processing. Processing methods include heat treatment such as cooking, as well as fermentation, smoking, drying and refining. Many foods must be cooked to make them edible and digestible, or to improve their organoleptic properties and acceptability. However, thermal processing of foods by baking, frying, grilling or barbecuing, either at home or during manufacture, can have undesired consequences. Besides the loss of some nutrients, for example vitamins, potentially harmful by-products can also develop.

Within the European Union (EU), contaminants in food products were initially addressed by the framework regulation for food contaminants Council Regulation (EEC) No. 315/93 of 8th February 1993. For the purposes of the regulation, a contaminant may be defined as: ‘any substance not intentionally added to food which is present in such food as a result of the production (including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine), manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food or as a result of environmental contamination’. To ensure public health, contaminant levels should be kept as low as can be reasonably achieved through good manufacturing, agricultural and fishery practices and which are toxicologically acceptable. Council Regulation (EEC) No. 315/93 stipulated that maximum levels were to be set for certain contaminants. Paragraph 3 of Article 2 of the regulations requires that maximum levels must be set for specific contaminants and that these levels must be adopted in the form of a non-exhaustive Community list. Community measures relating to specific contaminants were introduced by Commission Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 which was designed to address disparities between the laws of Member States in regard to the maximum levels for contaminants in certain foodstuffs and the consequent risk of distortion of competition. Maximum levels for lead, cadmium, mercury, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and inorganictin were set under this legislation.

Council Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 set down the general principles and requirements of food law within the EU, established the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and general procedures in matters of food safety. Subsequently Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 established the basis for official controls to be performed by EU member states to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules. Maximum levels of process contaminants were further addressed in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 and subsequent amendments. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 also stipulated that ‘in the cases of contaminants which are considered genotoxic carcinogens or in cases where current exposure of the population or vulnerable groups in the population is close to or exceeds the tolerable intake, maximum levels should be set at a level which is as low as reasonably achievable.’ The regulations reinforce the role of Food Business Operators (FBOs) as key contributors towards the protection of public health. Contaminated products exceeding the maximum permitted levels should not be placed on the market, nor mixed with other foodstuffs or used as an ingredient. The Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 also specified sampling and analysis measures to achieve uniformity in the reporting and interpretation of contaminants by the competent authorities of the member states.

The following have been identified by the EU as the major process contaminants of concern in food to date and as such their occurrence and concentrations are expected to be minimised to ensure public health protection:

  • Acrylamide

  • Chloropropanols [3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), 2-monochloro-propanediol (2-MCPD)] and their esters

  • Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs)

  • Furan and methylfurans

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  • Ethyl carbamate

  • Heterocyclic amines

  • Hydroxymethylfurfuryl (HMF)

Acrylamide is mainly formed in food by the reaction of asparagine with reducing sugars (particularly glucose and fructose) as part of the Maillard reaction; acrylamide may also be formed via reactions involving 3-aminopropionamide.1,2  The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified acrylamide as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A) in 1994. Subsequently, the EFSA Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food (2015) described acrylamide as a cause for concern for human health with young children as the most vulnerable group.3 

Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 came into effect in April 2018. This regulation established best practice and describes the mitigation measures required to minimise acrylamide formation during processing and to enable reduced concentrations in processed foods. The regulation also sets benchmark levels (BMLs; formerly referred to as Indicative Values) for processed foods. BMLs were established to provide guidance to FBOs such that consumer exposure to acrylamide would be reduced.

The food categories addressed by Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 apply to all EU FBOs and include:

  1. Products based on raw potatoes

    • a. Food business operators (FBOs) to identify and use appropriate varieties

    • b. Sliced potato crisps

    • c. French fries and other cut deep fried or oven fried potato products

  2. Dough-based potato crisps, snacks, crackers and other dough-based potato products

  3. Fine bakery wares – cookies biscuits, rusks, cereal bars, scones, cornets, wafers, crumpets and gingerbread, crackers (dry biscuit based on cereal flour), crispbreads and bread substitutes

  4. Breakfast cereals

  5. Coffee: (i) roast coffee; (ii) instant (soluble) coffee

  6. Coffee substitutes containing more than 50% cereals

  7. Coffee substitutes containing more than 50% chicory

  8. Baby biscuits and infant cereals

  9. Baby jar foods [low acid and prune-based foods as per European Regulation (EU) 609/2013]

  10. Bread

In addition to setting BMLs, Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 addresses FBO mitigation measures, sampling and analysis procedures. FBOs within the EU are expected have a general understanding of acrylamide as a food safety hazard and the conditions leading to its formation. Consequently, FBOs are expected to undertake steps necessary to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in the food that they produce and to implement appropriate food safety management procedures such as those based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. Records should be kept of any sampling and analysis undertaken, as well as any mitigation measures implemented. The food product sampling plans and the results of testing should also be recorded. It is intended that the measures are proportionate to the size and complexity of the business and that small and micro FBOs are not unduly burdened and economically disadvantaged. To assist national and local authorities, as well as FBOs, FoodDrinkEurope makes available an Acrylamide ‘Toolbox’ to assist implementation of Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 and reduce public exposure to acrylamide. This can be accessed at http://www.fooddrinkeurope.eu/publication/fooddrinkeurope-updates-industry-wide-acrylamide-toolbox/.

Acrylamide formation primarily takes place under conditions of high temperature (usually in excess of 120 °C) and low moisture, both in industrial food processing and in domestic cooking processes such as frying, baking and roasting.1  For these reasons, cooking directions should be provided to consumers for home cooking which ensure microbiological safety, whilst minimising acrylamide formation. Recommended cooking methods specifying time, temperature, quantity for oven/deep fryer/pan on packaging and/or via other communication channels must be provided to end users. For consumers the recommended cooking instructions shall be clearly displayed on all product packaging in compliance with Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 that addresses the provision of food information to consumers. In the United Kingdom, The Food Standards Agency advises consumers to ‘aim for a golden yellow colour or lighter when frying, baking, toasting or roasting starchy foods’ and to ‘follow the cooking instructions on the pack when cooking packaged foods like chips and roast potatoes’.

Acid hydrolysed vegetable proteins are used as flavour enhancers and ingredients in processed savoury foods. Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid (HCl) combined with poor time and/or temperature control and incorrect hydrolysate neutralisation procedures can generate 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and related compounds.4  At-risk foods include:

  • Soy sauce

  • Oyster sauce

  • Broths

  • Soups

  • Savoury snacks

  • Gravy mix

  • Stock cubes

Replacement of HCl with sulphuric acid is performed to prevent production of chlorinated compounds but the fermentation products often require treatment with colourants (e.g. caramel) and flavour enhancers (e.g. monosodium glutamate, soy sauce). Consequently, additional food safety issues reported through the EU Rapid Alert System for Food Products (RASSF) have included the presence of heavy metals and adulteration with non-permitted dyes.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified glycidol as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A) and 3-MCPD as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B).5  The parent MCPD/glycidol moiety may be released from the fatty acid esters of these compounds following ingestion as a result of digestive processes making the compounds available for uptake from the gut. The esters are metabolised to free 3-MCPD and free glycidol in rodents and present adverse toxicological effects and a similar behaviour and impact may be anticipated in humans.6 

Commission Regulation EC No. 1881/2006 addresses 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and GE where EFSA have set the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters (expressed as MCPD equivalents) to 2 µg kg−1 bodyweight per day. The recent EFSA Scientific Opinion (2016), stated that high consumers of at-risk foods had a 3-MCPD intake that exceeded the TDI four-fold.7  In the case of infants consuming formula milk, the estimated exposure to 3-MCPD was 2.4 µg kg−1 bodyweight per day using mean occurrence and 3.2 µg kg−1 bodyweight per day using the 95th percentile of occurrence. It was recommended that the TDI was reduced further to 0.8 µg kg−1 bodyweight per day.7 

MCPD formation occurs in acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP) and formation is due to a reaction between hydrochloric acid and lipids that occurs more rapidly at the high temperatures used in processing.

In thermally processed foods such as bakery products, malt-derived products, cooked/cured fish or meat, formation is by heat as a reaction product of triacylglycerols, phospholipids or glycerol and hydrochloric acid (usually from sodium chloride naturally present or added) in fat-based or fat-containing foods, especially with oil temperatures of 200 °C or above.

For 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD the at-risk categories include:

  • Refined vegetable oils (especially palm oil), margarines

  • Infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children

  • Malt-derived products

  • Cooked/cured fish or meat

  • Bakery goods including pastries and cakes

EFSA released an update (EFSA, 2018) of the risk assessment on 3-MCPD in vegetable oils and food to reassess the possible long-term adverse effects on the kidney and male fertility.8  It was noted that the TDI of 2 µg kg−1 per day established by EFSA in 2017 is not exceeded in the adult population, though a slight exceedance of the TDI was observed in high consumers of younger age groups, particularly infants receiving formula only.

During the production of fats and oils, fatty acid esters may be formed from 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidol when the fats and oils are heated to high temperatures in the presence of chloride ions.

For MCPD esters the at-risk foods are:

  • Refined vegetable oils

  • Infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children

The concentrations of 3-MCPD esters are lowest in rapeseed oil and highest in palm oil, a widely used food ingredient. MCPD esters are formed from acylglycerols in the presence of chlorinated compounds during deodorization at high temperature (generally >200 °C).9  Both natural and synthetic anti-oxidants present during deep fat frying of potato chips in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil have been shown to reduce the occurrence of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters, by inhibiting the formation of radical intermediates.10 

GEs are formed from diacylglycerols with no requirement for chlorinated compounds. GE formation is directly associated with elevated temperatures (>240 °C) and the time at these elevated temperatures. In particular, refined vegetable oil deodorization at elevated temperatures >240 °C is the critical step in the formation of GE.

For glycidyl esters, the at-risk foods listed in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 are:

  • Vegetable fats and oils, margarines

  • Infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children

  • Products containing refined vegetable oils, especially refined palm oil

Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/290 was published in February 2018 and came into force in March 2018. This provided for an amendment to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 concerning the maximum levels of glycidyl fatty acid esters permitted in certain foods. Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/290 covers edible oils and infant formula as well as soy sauce and hydrolysed vegetable protein. Limits for glycidyl esters were set for infant formula (powder and liquid) at 5 µg kg−1 and 10 µg kg−1 respectively.

The IARC has classified furan as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).5  Furan and related compounds 2- and 3-methyl furan are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co-occur. Furans are formed unintentionally in heat processed foods as products of the Maillard reaction, particularly in coffee and in canned or jarred foods. Multiple precursors have been identified that are natural food components, including carbohydrates, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids.11,12 

Commission Regulation (EC) No. 196/2007 addresses furan and related compounds in food which includes 2-methylfurans and 3-methylfurans. For furan, 2-methylfurans and 3-methylfurans the at-risk categories are thermally processed items which primarily include:

  • Coffee – solid, instant, roasted beans, ground roasted beans

  • Canned and jarred foods including baby food containing meat and various vegetables

The final concentrations of furan depend on multiple factors such as industrial or home processing, preparation for consumption (type of brewing, microwave or stove heating) and individual consumption habits. The EFSA Scientific Opinion of October 2017 concluded that the level of exposure to furans in food indicates a potential human health concern.13  Data from animal exposure studies that was taken into consideration indicated that liver damage and liver cancer were the most significant health effects. The EFSA noted that the Joint Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organisation (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) had also concluded that the level of exposure to furan in food indicates a human health concern. Based on these observations and conclusions, furans are an important public health concern and therefore, similar to acrylamide, food processing by FBOs and consumer behaviour will both have a key role in the subsequent formation of furans and likelihood of dietary exposure.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutant compounds that are composed of two or more aromatic rings, generally produced as a result of incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic materials. More than one hundred different PAH compounds exist and these ae found primarily as mixtures. PAHs enter the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities, for example vehicle exhausts emissions or incineration. The major route of human exposure to PAHs for non-smokers is from food.14,15 

Food can be contaminated with PAHs derived from environmental sources, or by industrial food processing methods, for example heating, drying and smoking and during domestic food preparation, for example smoking, drying, grilling, barbecuing, toasting and roasting. For PAHs, the at-risk categories are thermally processed items and where exposure to the products of fossil fuel or organic material combustion take place such as smoking or drying.15,16  These include:

  • Oils and fats

  • Cocoa beans and derived products e.g. cocoa fibre

  • Smoked/dried meat, fish and shellfish and derived products

  • Dried herbs and spices

  • Banana chips

  • Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods

  • Infant formulae and follow-on formulae and milks

  • Food supplements

The EFSA Scientific Opinion (2008) reported the findings of their evaluation of the potential toxic threat of dietary exposure to PAHs.17  Some PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene were recognised as genotoxic carcinogens and consequently dietary exposure should be kept as low as reasonably practicable. Four marker PAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene) were identified which became the focus of the subsequent regulation of which Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 was first. Further regulations that have addressed PAHs in food have included Commission Regulation (EU) No. 420/2011 (which prescribed the maximum sum of the four marker PAHs; PAH4), Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1933.

The effects of time, cooking method, pH and marinades on PAH formation have been reported.18,19  Vegetable oils have been shown to contain PAHs and extended frying times, or repeated use of the oils, have resulted in elevated concentrations.20,21  Consequently, the repeated use of cooking oils should be avoided and this further suggests a requirement for suitable guidance to FBOs and actions to inform and modify consumer behaviour to minimise exposure.

Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an ethyl ester of carbamic acid. EC can be formed from various substances derived from food and beverages, including hydrogen cyanide, urea, citrulline, and other N-carbamyl compounds. Cyanate is probably the ultimate precursor in most cases, reacting with ethanol to form the carbamate ester.22 

EC has been classified as a probable carcinogen (group 2A) by the IARC.5  EC has been linked to lung cancer and mutations in organs such as liver, mammary glands, heart, ovary and stomach. EC exposure has been linked to neurological disorders and exposure during pregnancy can cause damage to the developing foetal nervous system.23 

EC has been found in many fermented food products and alcoholic beverages although stone fruit brandies present the highest risk of ethyl carbamate formation. For some wines, production and storage conditions may also elevate the likelihood of ethyl carbamate formation, e.g. the use of urea-based fertilizers, exposure of the fermented product to light and presence of fruit must or pomace in the bottles during storage.

Commission Regulation (EC) No.110/2008 addressed ethyl carbamate in food and beverages and at-risk categories identified included:

  • Spirits, wine and beer, especially stone fruit brandies

  • Fermented foods and beverages, including soy sauce

  • Yoghurt

On the basis of animal studies, JECFA concluded that EC is a genotoxic carcinogen.24  The EFSA has since requested data on levels of EC compounds in foods and beverages and the data gathered will be used to undertake a risk assessment of the threat to population health. Further regulation to control the levels of EC in at risk products and ensure consumer protection may therefore be anticipated.

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed when amino acids, sugars and creatine or creatinine react at temperatures in excess of 150 °C. HCAs are formed by cooking protein-rich foods, especially those containing animal muscle tissues such as meat and fish, at high temperatures such as frying, grilling or barbecuing directly over an open flame. The levels of HCAs produced in meat products are mainly dependent on the kinds of meat product, cooking time and temperature. These HCAs are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, and chicken, but are also present at lower levels in baked and fried foods derived from grain.25 

The IARC has categorized the following heterocyclic amines as possible human carcinogens:5  2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-ami-no-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f  ]quinoline (MeIQ), whereas 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f  ]quinoline (IQ) has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen. Although not subject to specific regulation at present, HCAs have been shown to form simultaneously with PAHs in grilled meats.26  Consequently, existing EU regulations to control consumer exposure to PAHs will prove beneficial.

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heterocyclic aldehyde, formed from sugars such as glucose or fructose as an intermediate of the Maillard reactions that take place during thermal processing, or subsequently during storage. HMF is found in many thermally processed foodstuffs, for example bakery products, cookies, candies, chewing gums and alcoholic beverages. HMF may be present due to the use of corn syrups and may also be present in fruit juices, dried fruits, crackers, vinegars, baby food, honey and coffee. In carbonated soft drinks, the sources of HMF are both sweeteners and sulphite ammonia caramel, added as a food colouring. The levels of this compound depend on the type of drink and sweetener used, for example sucrose or glucose–fructose syrup.27 

HMF is a quality marker in honey and concentrations increase due to long-term storage under inappropriate conditions, excessive heating to achieve decrystallisation, or as a result of adulteration with invert sugars. Additional factors include the honey variety, chemical composition and acidity.27,28  Council Directive 2001/10/EC and subsequent amendments address the organoleptic and chemical properties of honey permitted for sale in the EU. At present, a maximum permitted level for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural of 40 mg kg−1 in honey has been established.

HMF exhibits cytotoxicity towards the mucous membranes, skin and upper respiratory tract, as well as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity with observable chromosome abnormalities. In contrast it has been reported to exhibit beneficial anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic and anti-cell sickling properties and have therapeutic uses.28–30  At present it has not been fully confirmed that dietary HMF presents a risk to consumer health.

Fermentation (alcoholic, acidic, alkaline), pickling, salting and putrefaction present a diverse range of potential additional chemical safety issues. Risks associated with fermented foods can arise from incorrect or contaminated starter cultures, incorrect or poorly regulated fermentation conditions and contaminated fermentation substrates. Contaminants which may be present include biogenic amines, N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), for example nitrosamine and mycotoxins (for example aflatoxin and ochratoxin).31  At risk foods include:

  • Raw fermented sausage e.g. salami, pepperoni, spreads, luncheon meats

  • Pickled vegetables

  • Sauerkraut

  • Shrimp paste/shrimp sauce

  • Fish sauce (Yulu)

  • Chocolate

  • Soy sauce

  • Bean curd (fermented tofu – coagulated soy milk)

  • Douchi (fermented and salted black soybean)

  • Miso (fermented soy beans)

  • Natto (fermented soy beans)

  • Tempeh (fermented soy beans)

  • Kimchi (fermented cabbage)

  • Kombucha (fermented tea)

  • Idli (fermented black lentils)

  • Ogiri (fermented melon)

  • Iru (fermented locust bean)

  • Ugba (fermented African oil bean)

  • Mahewu (fermented maize meal)

  • Ogi (fermented maize meal)

In addition to fermentation, incorrect handling and storage of produce may also result in contamination with the metabolic products from putrefaction (decay) processes. Contaminant substances examples include ethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine. At risk sources include:

  • Wine

  • Cheese

  • Fish

  • Meat

  • Vegetables, for example sauerkraut

  • Other traditional foods often not widely consumed and with restricted geographic distribution, for example Surstromming (fermented herring)

The processing conditions most likely to generate chemical safety risks for foods include:

  • Thermal processing >120 °C for high asparagine, low moisture materials, for example baking, roasting, frying and drying

  • Exposure to the combustion products of fossil fuels and organic materials e.g. smoking and drying

  • Heating of oils or fats at elevated temperatures >200 °C, especially in the presence of chlorinated components

  • Fermentation (alcoholic, acidic, alkaline), pickling, salting and putrefaction

Whilst many of the priority process contaminants are subject to specific regulation within the EU, there are several which are not, despite their known or suspected risk to consumer health. Although not subject to specific regulation to control or minimise exposure risk, some are currently subject to investigation by EFSA. For example, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been highlighted as a prominent area for possible future legislative measures, as currently there is no AGE-related legislation, although EFSA do have AGE levels in food on their watchlist. EFSA recently identified future research priorities under the theme: Protecting consumers' health with independent scientific advice on the food chain. The full EFSA Report can be found at this link: (EFSA Strategy 2020 – Trusted science for safe food): https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/corporate_publications/files/strategy2020.pdf.

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002; laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.

  • Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004; on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules.

  • Council Regulation (EEC) No 315/93 of 8 February 1993; laying down Community procedures for contaminants in food.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 November 2003; on smoke flavourings used or intended for use in or on foods.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 627/2006 of 21 April 2006 implementing Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council; as regards quality criteria for validated analytical methods for sampling, identification and characterisation of primary smoke products.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006; setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 196/2007 of 26 February 2007 fixing the export refunds on cereals and on wheat or rye flour, groats and meal.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 of 28 March 2007; laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, inorganic tin, 3-MCPD and benzo(a)pyrene in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 on the definition, description, presentation, labelling and the protection of geographical indications of spirit drinks and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 1576/89

  • Commission Regulation (EC) No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008; amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 420/2011 of 29 April 2011; amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 of 19 August 2011; amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 836/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending Regulation (EC) 333/2007; laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, inorganic tin, 3-MCPD and benzo(a)pyrene in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the COUNCIL of 25 October 2011; on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 1258/2011 of 2 December 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006; setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125 of 10 July 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Katsuobushi (dried bonito) and certain smoked Baltic herring.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1933 of 27 October 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cocoa fibre, banana chips, food supplements, dried herbs and dried spices.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 of 20 November 2017; establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels for the reduction of the presence of acrylamide in food.

  • Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/290 of 26 February 2018 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006; as regards maximum levels of glycidyl fatty acid esters in vegetable oils and fats, infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children.

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