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Micro-Raman spectroscopy is applied to the study of ancient Levantine ceramics with the aim of exploring the potential of this analytical technique in the reconstruction of ancient ceramic productions. The advantages and drawbacks of Raman spectroscopy, here discussed, highlight its great potential in the evaluation of technological levels and provenance of ancient ceramic artifacts. In particular, the high spatial resolution and the high scattering efficiency of some crystalline phases allow one to identify some specificities of the mineralogical composition of ceramic samples and consequently the definition of the nature of the raw material used, the pigments involved in the surface decoration and some preliminary information concerning the firing conditions. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy is shown to have a role in studies of provenance, where discrimination between the end-members of a solid solution and the possibility of identifying mineralogical phases in low abundance provide data that permit one to define local or imported productions. Raman spectroscopy proved to be a good companion for bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction in the study of ancient ceramic artefacts, enabling the reconstruction of each single step of ceramic production.

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