CHAPTER 31: Petroleum, Its Derivatives and Micronuclei
Published:18 Jul 2019
Since the 1960s, petroleum has been the most important energy source, and thousands of its chemicals or derivatives contribute to global air, water, and soil pollution. Benzene is one of the most hazardous and ubiquitous components among the petroleum derivatives encountered in industrial occupations and environmental pollution, causing haematotoxic and genotoxic aplastic anemia as well as all types of leukemia. The aim of this chapter is to describe the mechanism of exposure to petroleum chemicals and discuss current knowledge on the use of micronucleus assays to study genetic damage induced by petroleum and its chemical derivatives. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay with peripheral blood lymphocytes is a useful biomarker to reflect the genetic damage caused by benzene – a major product of the petroleum industry.