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Fish cell lines have been successfully introduced for the detection of genotoxic effects and can serve as an alternative to animal testing in preliminary eco-/genotoxicological studies. Recently, the micronucleus assay that was originally developed for mammalian cells has also been extensively used in fish cell lines for testing the genotoxic activity of chemicals and complex environmental matrices. The present chapter reviews the current literature data on studies using the micronucleus assay on fish cell lines and considers micronucleus protocols applied on permanent piscine cell cultures. Furthermore, the most used fish cell lines in the micronucleus assay are discussed.

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