Carbon Capture and Storage
Chapter 10: Applications of CCS in the Cement Industry
Published:29 Nov 2019
Special Collection: 2019 ebook collection , ECCC Environmental eBooks 1968-2022Series: Energy and Environment
Thomas P. Hills, Mark G. Sceats, Paul S. Fennell, 2019. "Applications of CCS in the Cement Industry", Carbon Capture and Storage, David Reiner, Mai Bui, Niall Mac Dowell
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Cement manufacture is responsible for around 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The process is unique in that around two-thirds of the direct CO2 emissions are unavoidable as they come from the process chemistry rather than from fuel combustion. This makes reducing them particularly difficult, and carbon capture and storage is currently the only option that can reduce emissions by the extent required to allow cement manufacture to continue beyond the transition to low CO2-emission economies. Post-combustion capture options, which are similar to those described in Chapter 4, are available. Equally, oxy-fuel combustion is possible. Pre-combustion capture can only deal with one-third of emissions from combustion, and so is generally not considered. Other cement-specific options exist, such as direct separation, and the synergies between calcium looping and cement manufacture are noteworthy. High CO2 intensity coupled with the relatively low price of cement means that CCS is expensive per unit of cement manufactured. The lack of large-scale capture facilities means that the costs are rather uncertain, although several estimates are given in this chapter. A summary of existing pilot plants is provided, the challenges of rolling out carbon capture in the cement sector are discussed, and a way forward is suggested.